The future of aviation connectivity is satcom. Satcom, or satellite communication, offers a number of advantages over traditional ground-based systems. Perhaps most importantly, satcom is not subject to the same weather-related disruptions that can ground aircraft. In addition, satcom provides a much higher bandwidth than ground-based systems, making it ideal for applications such as live streaming and video conferencing. As the demand for in-flight connectivity continues to grow, satcom is poised to become an essential part of the aviation industry. Private jets were some of the first users of satcom, but airlines are now beginning to adopt the technology as well. In the future, satcom will be an essential component of the aviation ecosystem, driving growth and innovation in the industry.
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The maritime industry has evolved to develop the GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress And Safety System). The GMDSS system was developed to enhance maritime distress and safety radio communications and procedures.
The most important feature of GMDSS equipment is that it vastly reduces the likelihood of ships going missing without a trace, allowing SAR operations to be launched quickly and directed to the exact location of a maritime disaster.
The days of professional radio officers operating radio equipment on ships are long gone. Holding GMDSS installation, any deck officer with a General Operator Certificate (GOC) and a license can use the GMDSS equipment and make radio conversations when necessary.
Mariners must understand the purpose of GMDSS equipment and perform the necessary maintenance on board the vessel to function properly and effectively in an emergency.
Every navigating officer responsible for it should regularly conduct weekly and monthly tests on all GMDSS equipment without failure. We must know that it is our only best friend in an emergency at sea.
The nine functional GMDSS standards must be met by ships at sea. It’s as follows:
- Distress signaling from ship to shore
- Distress signaling from the shore to the ship
- Distress signaling from ship to ship
- Coordination of SAR
- Communication of On-scene
- Emergency location signals are sent and received.
- Receipt of MSI and Transmission
- Radio communications in general
- Communication between bridges
This can be ensured by performing frequent tests on the GMDSS equipment.
GMDSS Equipment Tests daily
The proper operation of the Digital Selective Calling (DSC) facilities must be tested at least once per day using the equipment’s internal test facility, without radiation of signals. The daily test examines the internal connection, output power transmission, and display. Depending on the manufacturer, the method may differ from one piece of equipment to another.
GMDSS Equipment Weekly Tests
When within the communication range of a shore station equipped with DSC equipment, it is important to test the correct implementation of the DSC facilities at least once a week by attempting to make a test call on one of the six distress and safety frequencies.
GMDSS Equipment Monthly Tests
The EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon) should be tested using the self-test function instead of the satellite system. During the self-test, no emergency signal is sent. The battery voltage, output power, and frequency are examined during the self-test. Physical damage to the EPIRB should also be checked. The battery units and the hydrostatic release unit’s expiration dates should be checked. Also, double-check that the safety clip is securely fastened.
The Search and Rescue Transponder, or SART, also has a self-test system for ensuring the beacon’s operational function. The ship’s X band radar is used to test the SART. The test should be conducted in open waters to avoid interference with the radar display.
1. Take the SART out of its mounting bracket.
2. One person should hold the SART in front of the radar scanner. From the bridge wings, this might be done. The SART should then be set to TEST mode for a short time by rotating it to the left to the TESTPREVUE position.
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A gyro compass is a sort of Gyroscope that uses an electrically powered, fast-spinning gyroscope wheel and frictional forces, among other things, to find true north using basic physical laws, gravity’s influences, and the Earth’s rotation.
Because of its capacity to detect true north rather than magnetic north, the gyro compass has become a vital tool in practically all merchant ships and naval vessels. It is made up of the following components:
Using a Gyroscope determines and maintains the true north reading.
Receive and display the true direction from the Master Compass via electrical transmission.
On a moving strip of paper, keeps a continual record of the maneuver.
Controls the system’s electrical operation and measures the running condition with a suitable meter.
Voltage Regulator: Maintains a steady flow of ship power to the generator.
Alarm Unit: Stipulate the supply of the ship has failed.
Amplifier Panel: Controls the system of follow-up.
Motor Generator: The Compass equipment is energized by converting the ship’s DC supply to AC.
One transmission method connects the gyro compasses to the repeater compasses. The linked fast-spinning rotor weighs between 1.25 and 55 pounds.
Another electric motor spins it at thousands of revolutions per minute. The spinning wheel, often known as the Gyroscope, is the most important component of a Gyro compass system.
Gyro compasses are not affected by external magnetic fields that deflect regular compasses. The autonomously driven structure known as ‘Phantom’ travels by the ship when it changes direction, but the rotor system continues to point northward.
Because of this, misalignment can send a signal to the driving motor, which then shifts the phantom step in with the rotor system in a path where the phantom may have managed to cross only a fraction of a degree or several degrees of the compass circle.
The phantom sends electrical impulses to the repeater compasses for each degree it travels when they are aligned.
The Gyroscope in the Gyrocompass is mounted so that it can freely rotate around three mutually perpendicular axes and is controlled so that its axis of spin remains parallel to the true meridian, despite the Earth’s rotation and gravity.
The uses of the Gyrocompass system are based on two key characteristics:
Gyroscopic Inertia: Any rotating body’s tendency to maintain its rotational plane.
Precession: When a couple is applied, this property causes the Gyroscope to move. Instead of traveling in the same direction as the couple, it moves at right angles to the applied couple’s axis and the spinning wheel.
The Gyrocompass uses these two qualities and the Earth’s two natural forces of rotation and gravity to find true north.
The rotor will remain on the true meridian eternally as long as the ship’s electrical supply is stable, unmodified, and unaffected by external factors.
Errors and Usage
Gyro compasses are used extensively on most ships to locate true north, steer, find positions, and record courses.
However, certain steaming mistakes may occur due to the ship’s path, speed, and latitude. The Gyro compass north is somewhat distorted to the West of the real meridian on northerly courses, whereas it is deflected to the East on southerly courses.
Modern ships provide data to the Gyrocompass to correct the inaccuracy using GPS or other navigational aids. An orthogonal triad of fibre optic design and ring laser gyroscopes, which use optical path difference to measure the rate of rotation rather than mechanical parts, could help eliminate flaws and detect true north.
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BNWAS is a monitoring and alarm system that alerts other navigational officers or the ship’s Master if the Officer on the watch (OOW) fails to respond or is incapable of performing watch duties effectively, resulting in maritime accidents.
The system checks the Officer of the Watch (OOW) and immediately warns the Master or another qualified OOW if the OOW becomes incapable of fulfilling their duties. This is accomplished through alerts and indicators that warn backup OOWs and the Master.
In the event of the watchkeeping officer’s incapacity due to an accident, illness, or a security violation, such as piracy and hijacking, BNWAS alerts are issued. Unless the Master decides otherwise, the BNWAS must be functioning at all times.
Why Do Ships Require BNWAS?
There have been numerous situations where ships collided or grounded due to poor decision-making or inefficiency in making a timely decision.
If a navigational officer cannot address an emergency, it can result in disastrous consequences. To avert this, the bridge has a BNWAS system, which works similarly to a dead man alarm in the engine room.
BNWAS sounds a succession of alerts and alarms in the Navigation Bridge to inform officers on duty. If the series of alarms receive no response, BNWAS will notify other Deck officers, So that someone can arrive on the bridge and deal with the situation and solve the problem, the Master of the ship.
BNWAS sounds a succession of alerts and alarms in the Navigation Bridge to inform officers on duty. Suppose the series of alarms receive no response. In that case, BNWAS will notify other Deck officers, including the Master of the ship, so that somebody can arrive out on the bridge, deal with the situation, and solve the problem.
BNWAS Operational Requirements
The BNWAS has three main modes of operation:
• Manual ON
• Manual OFF
The Function of Reset
- Only physically placed portions of the bridge can be reset, ensuring sufficient visibility.
- Only a single operator action (for those acquainted with BNWAS, one stroke to the round reset switch) can be used to reset the system, which extends the inactive period and cancels the alarms/indications.
- Constant activation of the latent period in relation to the reset button should not extend the dormant period beyond what is configured or cause the alarms/indications to be suppressed.
- To skip directly to the second and third stage alarms, an “Emergency Call” function must be present. This is where the OOW can call for help right away.
- The BNWAS’ accuracy should be within a 5 percent or 5-second window, whichever is less. Operational Mode and the Dormant Period setting should be limited to the Master alone. All aspects of the Emergency Call facility, including the fault indicator, should be powered by a battery.
- If necessary, outputs should be compatible with other bridge equipment.
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One of the most significant advancements in the shipping industry is the vessel management system. The vessel management system uses advanced technical equipment to monitor and manage vehicular traffic in oceanic and sea waters. Vessel management has become an essential part of the naval system, working with GPS and other gadgets such as a computer for display. There could be a lot of problems with the ship and other maritime vessel management.
The transmission of GPS data is a continual process in a vessel management system. It is easier for ships to rely on the accuracy of other ships in the water when GPS is enabled in their vessel management system. The GPS is designed so that it is unaffected by weather or atmospheric changes. As a result, the effectiveness of a vessel management system becomes even more credible, particularly in the event of fog, storms, or gales in the midst of the ocean or sea.
The computer used for the display is equipped with a Geographic Information System (GIS) that pinpoints the location of other naval boats by creating a virtual reproduction of their geographic location. This indicates a virtual simulation rather than a simple theoretical reference to a ship’s location, which could be confusing, especially in the problematic conditions mentioned above. The virtual simulation allows a ship’s commander to pay attention to the selected geographic pointers and avoid arriving ships in its direct path.
The vessel management system also uses radio frequencies, satellite channels, and mobile phone connectivity services to manage the vessels efficiently and communicate with other vessels and, if necessary, the coast guard. However, it should be emphasized that these services are constrained by network and connectivity limits. However, it cannot be denied that these devices provide a very reliable communication source for the vessel management system.
The shipping sector has improved and evolved even further in recent years. The shipping industry’s most essential vocations nowadays are oil exploration, cargo transfer in the form of oil containers, and other cargo transfers.
Unexpected oil spills might occur due to oil exploration and transportation of oil containers. Oil spills are not only a financial loss, but they are also a loss to the diverse marine ecosystem and life forms. Technology such as the vessel management system must be used efficiently to avoid such disasters. The vessel management system allows naval authorities and captains of other vessels on the ocean to be aware of a ship’s position.
There can be no doubt that the notion of vessel management will evolve more in the next years, particularly in terms of communication channels. But, for the time being, despite the small issues, there can be no doubt that the vessel management system is one of the greatest traffic controllers available.
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A fishfinder is a device that boaters use to find fish in the water. Fishfinders use the SONAR (Sound Navigation and Ranging) system’s technology. A fishfinder is an essential tool in today’s fishing process and for those interested in fishing as a recreational activity.
A fishfinder uses a digital screen, which can be LCD or CRT, to show the location of a fish. The fishfinder was initially utilized in the 1990s and has been regularly improved since then. The technology of today’s fishfinders has advanced to include technologies such as GPS, electronic compasses, and radar, making the gadget even more trustworthy than previously.
Fishfinder Operation & Display
The ship has a transmitter that transmits signals through the seas. The SONAR system uses echoes to reflect waves to the transmitter. After the reflected waves have been recorded, a signal is sent to the screen.
To guarantee that the signals received are not deceptive, the waves reflected by fish are presented differently than those reflected by stones, corals, or other obstructions. There are a variety of fishes in the water; echoes vary in size and shape instead of when the water is clear. Different symbols are used to represent items other than fish.
The presence of a fish in the water is shown on the display screen by a fish-shaped symbol. When the ship is traveling over the water area where the fish are, this display sometimes changes to arches on the screen. The presentation of the fish, on the other hand, is distinctive, so the person watching the digital screen will not be confused about the presence of fish and other underwater plants and stray grass.
Available Fishfinders on the Market
Fishfinders are available in a variety of styles and brands. Each of these sorts differs in the depth to which the technology can penetrate the water and reveal the presence of fish. Get in touch with us to buy the best fishfinders in the market.
Consumer’s Marine products entail using several types of equipment that are essential and significant in marine travel, and without which maritime adventure and travel can become harmful and dangerous. As the name implies, Consumers Marine caters to maritime travellers, providing them with the essential support system and technology back-up to keep their intended route and position in the water.
And the equipment offered by Consumers Maritime is diverse, allowing potential clients and users to select their marine equipment from a more extensive collection than a smaller one. Marine VHF Radios, Marine GPS Systems, and Marine Autopilots are the three critical pieces of equipment that makeup Consumers Marine.
All three of the Consumers above Marine Equipment’s are significant and relevant in their own right. They have gone a great way toward reducing the complexity of traveling overseas in modern times.
VHF Radios for Marine
VHF radios for marine use are two-way communicators that can send and receive messages. However, the most significant purpose of a Marine VHF Radio is that it is beneficial for sending distress signals across the channels to coast guards and other nearby ships and boats. Additionally, specific Maritime VHF Radios can be used to make calls through a marine operator for a fee, effectively making it a telephonic communicator.
Another critical feature of Marine VHF Radios is that they are divided into two types: portable and non-portable. The portable ones have waterproof covers and are battery-driven to facilitate power transmission. Fixed or non-portable Marine VHF Radios cover a large amount of aerial ground, have a more significant power transmission and energy, and are thus significantly more viable in terms of operational facilities than their portable counterparts.
GPS Systems for Marine
Marine GPS systems have become an indispensable tool when it comes to sea travel. Like its automotive counterparts, Aquatic GPS Systems assist ships and boats in staying on course, particularly in locations where marine life thrives.
Shipmen can also use Marine GPS Systems to locate the location of other ships to prevent colliding in the waters and causing damage to personnel and cargo on board. It’s worth noting that Maritime GPS Systems are waterproof, feature buttons and dials that can be controlled even with gloves, and, most importantly, are simple to use for all types of marine travellers.
Autopilots for Marine
Consumers Marine’s third and final support system is marine autopilots. A ship had to be physically managed by the captain in the older days, leaving no time for the captain to socialize with the rest of the crew. However, in modern times, the introduction of Marine Autopilots has eliminated the difficulty of physically manoeuvring the ship or boat, giving the captain significantly more flexibility in his operations. Marine autopilots come in a variety of configurations. They range from intricate to simple models, assisting veteran sailors and newer and less experienced ones. Marine Autopilots rely on Marine GPS Systems, making these two pieces of equipment more interdependent.
Consumers Marine’s latest expectations reflect the development and innovation in marine travel. Consumers Marine’s need for products and equipment has altered as the years have passed. Marine VHF Radios, Marine GPS Systems, and Marine Autopilots have become essential equipment for maritime travel in recent years. Without them, one can quickly become lost in the vast ocean surrounding the earth – both literally and metaphorically.
Nowadays, anyone can efficiently track and monitor anything they want. A vessel tracking system is a collection of equipment that allows marine and naval vessels to track, identify, and monitor a ship’s position, location, and any other detail that may be important in maneuvering and stabilizing a ship’s route and course, as the name suggests.
A vessel tracking system plays a vital role in today’s highly revolutionized world of marine travel by enabling long-range connectivity between ships and coast guards of nations and between ships. Furthermore, several of these vessel tracking systems have successfully incorporated internet connectivity as a primary purpose since the internet’s inception, resulting in a significantly improved service.
There are many different vessel tracking systems in the naval vessel industry, each with its own set of capabilities. The GPS is the most widespread of the various kinds of vessel tracking systems. The Global Positioning System, or GPS as it is more frequently known, is a vessel tracking system that has managed to capture and hold the general public’s interest.
The GPS is based on satellite transmission and is highly accurate and reliable. As a vessel tracking system, GPS pinpoints the position and location of the vessel in the water, which would be extremely useful if and when an unsuitable circumstance arises. A vessel may learn what routes to take, what courses to avoid, and all other crucial and necessary things for a ship’s navigation by employing GPS.
While GPS is helpful and vital as a vessel tracking system, there are additional vessel tracking systems that incorporate GPS features. The Automatic Identification System (AIS), for example, employs GPS technology to facilitate and act as transmission and receiving locations for VHF radio channels.
The AIS functions as a sending and receiving interference between ships and coast guards, allowing for monitoring a ship’s location and position. AIS is highly beneficial because it aids in preventing onboard collisions, will enable vessels to charter and alter their routes whenever and wherever necessary, and aids coast guards in locating a vessel that may be interfering with or manipulating the law.
Many ships utilize vessel monitoring systems to monitor and identify their paths, but the technology has not realized its full potential. The vessel tracking system is hampered by several restrictions prohibiting it from performing correctly. Distance limitations and satellite transmission issues are only a few of the problems that wreak havoc on the highly profitable operation of vessel monitoring systems. If these limitations could be removed, the concept behind the development of a vessel tracking system could pave the way for naval voyages by enabling widespread connectivity among necessary channels as more and more naval vessels mandate the use of a vessel tracking system.
Currently, efforts are being made regularly with research and progress in mind, and upgrades to various vessel tracking systems are frequently appearing, demonstrating the reliability and dependability value of such technological advancements in the field of marine travel, which was previously underutilized of its full potential.
GMDSS: An Overview
During the 18th century, ships operating in international and coastal seas relied on the Morse code to communicate any distress signal to a coastal authority or adjacent vessels in the event of an emergency.
This type of notification was never very apparent to understand what kind of emergency onboard ships because it was a broadcast of textural information utilizing tones or lights.
As a result, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a globally approved safety protocol known as the GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress Safety System) under SOLAS Chapter IV.
GMDSS and Its Applications
The GMDSS was completely operational on February 1, 1999. It was a collection of guidelines for the ship’s communication protocol, procedures, and safety equipment to follow in a distressing emergency.
All passenger ships and freight ships over 300 GT that travel in international waters must carry GMDSS-compliant equipment.
When a ship employs GMDSS, it simply sends out a distress signal by satellite or radio. It delivers and receives navigational safety information and a general communication channel.
There are different sea areas to allot the working equipment in the respective area.
|A1||20 to 50 M||VHF DSC|
|A2||50 to 400 M||VHF + MF|
|A3||70° N to 70° S||VHF + MF + One INMARSAT|
|A4||Above 70° N or S||HF + MF + VHF|
The following are the frequencies in a specific band:
- Medium Frequencies: 300 kHz to 3 MHz
- High Frequencies: 3 MHz to 30 MHz
- Very High Frequencies: 30 MHz to 300 MHz
Very High Frequencies (VHF)
Distress, Urgency, and Safety communications are carried on Channel 16, set to 156.800 MHz. The VHF DSC (Digital Selective Calling) channel 70, set at 156.525 MHz, is for routine VHF DSC (Digital Selective Calling) monitoring.
To avoid interference on Channel 16, GUARD channels are placed above and below. Aside from distress, safety, and Urgency, it is impossible to have uninterrupted traffic on Channel 16 without interfering with other communications. 156.775 MHz and 156.825 MHz are the Guard channel frequencies.
The VHF set, for example, relies on a 24 Volt DC source and uses J3E type transmission for radiotelephony and G2B type transmission for data transmission.
The following are the many components of GMDSS:
It is a satellite-based system incorporating the Inmarsat B, C, and F77 ship earth station terminals. It provides ship-to-ship, ship-to-shore, shore-to-ship telex, telephone, and data transfer services.
It is an internationally recognized automated system for distributing MSI-maritime safety information, such as weather forecasts and alerts, navigational warnings, search and rescue notices, and similar safety information.
EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon):
An EPIRB is a piece of equipment that aids in determining the location of survivors during a search and rescue operation. It’s a backup method of distress signaling. Here’s where you can learn more about EPIRB.
Search and Rescue Locating Equipment (SART):
The Search and Rescue Radar Transponder is the most common piece of search and rescue equipment. This is used to direct Search and Rescue units to a distress location detected through questioning.
DSC (Digital Selective DSC (Digital Selective Calling)
It is a ship-to-ship, ship-to-shore, or call service that uses high or medium frequency and VHF maritime radio to communicate safety and distress information.
Handling GMDSS equipment necessitates certification and licensing from the department’s Telecommunications department. An officer must have a General Operators Certificate (GOC) before being allowed to use GMDSS equipment onboard the ship.
To earn this GOC, you must first complete a short course, after which you must pass a test (both written and oral) that must be given. This course is designed for Cadets who need to become licensed Radio Operators to operate all equipment by the GMDSS requirements.
The training lasts about 12 days, and because the course is required, it is recommended that you phone an accredited institute to reserve a spot for a future session.
The officer is taught many parts of GMDSS throughout the course, ranging from Radio Log to transmitting INMARSAT messages and all other components required when carrying out communication onboard. The written exam assesses theory, whereas the oral exam is a one-on-one session with a surveyor who assesses the candidate on all areas of GMDSS, encompassing the entire syllabus (theory and practical).
Admiralty List of Radio Signals (ALRS)
- Distress Communication And False Alert
- Operation Procedure For Use Of DSC Equipment
- Search And Rescue Transponder
- Extract From ITU Radio Regulations
- VHF DSC List Of Coast Stations For Sea Area A1
- MF DSC List Of Coast Stations For Sea Area A2
- HF DSC List Of Coast Stations For Sea Area A3
- Maritime Safety Information (MSI)
- Distress, Search And Rescue
Marine Radio (Portable)
The portable marine radio, also known as the survival craft transceiver, is a piece of equipment kept in the bridge if the ship’s crew has to board the survival craft. It can also be used for communication on board. It is utilized for on-scene coordination between the survival craft and the search and rescue personnel in an emergency. The following are the IMO criteria for survival craft transceivers:
- Unskilled personnel can operate it.
- 156.8 MHz (Channel 16) and 156.3 MHz (Channel 16) are used for transmission and reception (Channel 6)
- Withstand a 1-meter drop
- For 5 minutes, it was watertight to a depth of 1 meter.
- A minimum power of 0.25 watts is required.
- There is a power-saving switch accessible.
- An omnidirectional, vertically polarised antenna is needed.
- 8-hour battery power capacity (Nickel Cadmium or Lithium Battery)
The scope of GMDSS is broad, and the only way to improve at handling the equipment and learn more about the setup is to study extensively about it, whether through publications, manuals, or any other available means.
Because the GMDSS is a mandated setup onboard ships and a critical setup in emergencies, it is in the ship’s officer’s best interests to learn everything there is to know about it.