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Marine Fenders Used For Ship Berthing- The marine fender system is one of the most important components – exterior to the ship’s mechanical or electrical systems – that come into play when berthing a vessel. An effective fender system protects the ship from external damage that might otherwise be caused to the hull plates or the berth or jetty that comes into touch with the ship’s steel plates.
How Are Marine Fenders Used For Ship Berthing?
Theoretically, a ship should be hauled to the berth at a very slow speed. An exponential increase in momentum – which is essentially the product of mass and velocity – will result from a tiny increase in speed. When a displacement tonnage of 10,000 is multiplied by a speed of one knot, the momentum is half that when multiplied by two knots. With every knot of speed increase, the impact energy increases by twice, thrice, four times, and so on.
Due to a variety of factors such as tides, wind impacts, tugs, unpredictable pull, engine breakdowns, and so on, practice speed cannot always be kept to a bare minimum. A good maritime fender system might come to the rescue in such situations. A marine fender system should ideally be cost-effective, low-maintenance, and long-lasting. If a replacement is needed, the material should be available locally.
The ship’s navigator must evaluate the quantity of berthing energy required when berthing. When docking, the ship’s pilot must consider the amount of power docked. It is actually a product of many different variations, such as the mass or displacement of the ship, its approach speed, and the added mass factor (which is the mass of the water moving with the ship and the sudden surge). Come to a sudden stop at the point of contact), the eccentricity coefficient is the rotation produced by the reaction when the bow or stern of the ship is in contact with the bolted marine fenders, the berth profile coefficient is the amount of energy absorbed by the buffering action of water between the quay wall and the approaching vessel, and the damping factor is the energy absorbed by the hull deformation and the shore defence factor.
When berthing is done in unusual conditions, like as bad weather, human or technical fault, or a terrifying combination of all three, abnormal energy is produced. The quay wall and shore structure must operate against the ship’s hull to neutralize the kinetic force exerted by the ship on the pier or berth.
Immediately following the collision of the ship’s hull on the dock installations, the reactive force of the dock installations increases dramatically. As a result, the hull and dock structure both deflect in accordance with their stiffness.
The maritime fender, which is installed in their interface, becomes active at this point. It deflects and minimizes berthing energy significantly without causing permanent damage to the vessel’s hull or the berth’s concrete. Naturally, fenders should be capable of absorbing a large amount of force without imposing a reactive force on the quay.
Types of Fenders
Various varieties of rubber marine fenders, foam marine fenders, and pneumatic marine fenders have recently replaced hollow wooden fenders. Fixed rubber fender systems are now available in a variety of styles, including
- Cone fenders
- Cell fenders
- Arch fenders
- Cylindrical fenders
- D type fenders
- Leg fenders
- Dock corner rubber fenders
- Pie-type rubber fenders
Pneumatic fenders are air-filled floating maritime fenders that can be mounted on a quay wall or a ship’s hull, depending on the situation. Pneumatic marine fenders come in four different varieties.
- Sling type fender
- Rib type fender
- Rope net fender
- China and tyre net
Fenders are an important feature of the ship’s safety system since they absorb quay or hull shocks. A large range or variety of marine fenders is available on the market for various applications. They are used for a variety of purposes, including commerce vessels, boats, yachts, and other floating vessels.
The proper selection of a marine fender to optimize cost and effectiveness is a problem that necessitates both experience and competence, not to mention a complete understanding of the available kinds, requirements, and theories.